Written by Dr. David Lamb Sunday, 01 April 2012 00:00

In the spring of my freshman year, I remember the Stanford Daily declaring in a headline that Stanford’s president, Donald Kennedy, was going to run for the U.S. Senate.  I was shocked.  It didn’t make any since—his background was science, not law.  As I glanced over the headlines on rest of the front page, I was struck by how interesting all the news stories were that day…until I noticed the date on the top of the page, April 1.  The headlines that day were all fiction.  I was fooled. 

Foolishness is understood generally, and particularly on April 1, as naiveté.  (“Did you know ‘gullible’ is not in the dictionary?”)

Scripture has a lot to say about foolishness.  While Proverbs may address the topic more than any other book, several psalms also focus on foolishness.  Last week in my Psalms class we were looking at Wisdom Psalms and we examined Psalm 14, which begins,

Fools say in their hearts, “There is no God.”

Interestingly, Psalm 53 repeats Psalm 14 verbatim.  (Paul also quotes most of Psalm 14/53:1-3 in Romans 3:10-12.)  The biblical authors apparently thought that the message of this psalm needed to be emphasized. 

I have had the opportunity to interact recently with many atheists, or non-theists, as some prefer (see http://davidtlamb.com/2012/02/18/behaving-badly-at-bucknell-2/).  I was careful to not quote Psalm 14:1 at them.  Somehow I don’t think that would have made them more open to Jesus.  But I don’t think this psalm is targeting the people we think it is. 

Notice how the psalmist expresses it, “Fools say in their hearts…”  These aren’t people who state their atheism with words, but they have somehow internalized their lack of faith, and as the psalmist elaborates in the following verses, this “atheism” is expressed in behavior.  Sound familiar?  Christians aren’t going to say, “There is no God” publically, but often our actions communicate exactly that.  When we act as if God doesn’t exist, we have become practical atheists.  Christians behaving badly. 

I’m not just talking about not having a morning quiet time (although that is a problem).  The things God calls people to in Scripture required real faith.  To Abraham: Leave everything.  To Moses: Deliver my people.  To Hosea: Marry a prostitute.  To Peter: Leave your nets.  To Saul/Paul: Go to the Gentiles.  When these individuals responded obediently, they were saying in their hearts, “There is a God.”

God’s invitation to get involved in his mission will involve more than attending church on Sunday.  Our acceptance of his invitation will constitute a bold declaration that there is a God. 

Even though our reckless acts of faith may appear naïve to the world around us, we will be able to join Paul in declaring that we are “fools for the sake of Christ” (1 Cor. 4:10). 

How can the actions of Christians today communicate that there is a God? 

David Lamb is Associate Professor of Old Testament at Biblical. He’s the husband of Shannon, father of Nathan and Noah, and the author of God Behaving Badly: Is the God of the Old Testament Angry, Sexist and Racist? He blogs regularly at http://davidtlamb.com/. See also http://www.biblical.edu/index.php/david-lamb.


Written by Sam Logan Wednesday, 28 March 2012 00:00

Here is the lingering question from yesterday’s blog –

Where – and how – do we draw the lines of “moral responsibility” when discussing behaviors which may or may not be caused by internal conditions over which we may or may not have complete control?

I promised yesterday that I would try to see how America’s greatest theologian, Jonathan Edwards, would deal with this issue.

At first glance, this might seem anachronistically impossible.  After all, Edwards never wrote anything about the March 19, 2012, issue of Time magazine or about the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (which were part of the discussion yesterday).  Recognition of the potential anachronism involved here is appropriate; all too often, we try to make historical figures answer questions which never occurred in their worlds and we sometimes thereby twist the ideas of those figures inappropriately.

In this case, however, what we are proposing is not impossible because Edwards did wrestle with the issue of moral accountability and he did so specifically in the context of forces which some did regard as “controlling” the individual in question.  Edwards codified the results of this wrestling in his treatise on The Freedom of the Will which some Edwards scholars (John Gerstner among them) regard as his finest written document.  

Here are two simplified (but I really believe NOT simplistic) themes of Freedom

  1. Unless we are physically constrained to act or not to act in a given way, we are “free” to do what we want and are, therefore, responsible. [Alan Heimert {Religion and the Anmerican Mind} identified this insight as the key to the American Revolution.]
  2. In every situation where we are not physically constrained, we always do what we MOST WANT to do.  That is, in every single action when we are not constrained/restrained by external, physical forces, we are giving expression to that which we MOST WANT in the moment when we take that action. 

Further, Edwards argues that the ultimate measure of the “rightness” or “wrongness” of any given action rests in the very character of God Himself.  The moral law, as given in Scripture, is not arbitrary . . . it is nothing more or less than the objectification of the nature of God.  Therefore, anything that does not conform to the moral law is, by definition, a denial of or an attack on the character of God.  WHY we desire what we do when we take a specific action is irrelevant, at least in terms of determining whether the action is itself “right” or “wrong.”  Yes, there IS black and white in the moral world.

But how do we handle actions which deny or attack the character of God?  Now, the gray appears.

And it is not just gray with respect to actions which, in and of themselves, deny or attack the character of God.  Actions which by their nature conform to the character of God but which emerge from any desire other than the desire to “seek first the Kingdom of God” are themselves “not fully gracious,” to use the language of Edwards’s Treatise on Religious Affections  (which I regard as Edwards’s finest written document).

To push this point home, Edwards argues that there can be (and often are) ways of urging ourselves and others to “trust in Christ” which themselves  are “not fully gracious.”  If, for example, our entire motive for exercising faith in Christ is to get the blessedness of heaven, we are, in effect, making Christ a means to the end of our own benefit.  We are seeking our own “kingdom” (even though it is a “spiritual kingdom) instead of HIS Kingdom.  We should exercise faith in Christ most fundamentally (Edwards argues in Section 2 of Part III of the Affections ) because He deserves our faith, because He is worthy of the worship and honor which true faith entails.  Yes, God can be our greatest joy, but sinfully selfishly human beings (like the one writing this blog) far too often make joy our greatest god.

Therefore, to return to where we started yesterday, “sin”  always occurs when anything (yes, anything) other than the Kingdom and glory of God is “sought first.”  That sin may emerge in “normal” or “abnormal” individuals and it may emerge in either “healthy” or “sick” individuals.  

Further, Edwards argues in his Treatise on Original Sin that, when we consider the nature of sin, we must take account not only of the sins of commission but also of the sins of omission.  Here is just one of his statements on this subject:

It therefore appears . . . that whosoever withholds more of that love or respect of heart from God, which his law requires, than he affords, has more sin than righteousness.  But what considerate person is there, even among the more virtuous part of mankind, but would be ashamed to say, and profess before God or men, that he loves God half so much as he ought to do; or that he exercises one half of that esteem, honor, and gratitude towards God, which would be altogether becoming him; considering what God is, and what great manifestations he has made of his transcendent excellency and goodness, and what benefits he receives from him?

Anyone who wished for black and white (as I did at the beginning of yesterday’s blog) surely gets it here.  But this is a perfect case of “Be careful what you wish for because you might get it!” 

And this leads us again to what might be called “appropriate missional grayness.”

The standards are clear and they are white as the driven snow.  But since none of us achieves or could achieve this kind of moral whiteness, we are called upon to take account of all kinds of situational circumstances as we bring grace, in the person of Jesus, to sinners, ourselves included.  The child with Tourette’s Syndrome (mentioned in yesterday’s blog) is surely violating the Third Commandment when he takes the Lord’s name in vain.  We do neither the child nor (much more importantly) the Lord justice if we deny that such speech is wrong.

But how do we treat the child?  With the same patient grace that we bring to the severely depressed person or to the homosexual or to the binge eater or to the Internet addict or to the sex addict.  We seek to understand as much as we can about the person and her situation, including any relevant medical and psychological information.  We do not “excuse” behavior that is wrong no matter what the cause.  But we respond to such sins as those just mentioned in the way we hope our colleagues and spouses will respond when we fail (as we ALL do) to give God every bit of the glory that He deserves.

There really is a lesson to be learned from the Book of Jonah – and that lesson is NOT that the Ninevites did not deserve judgment.  They DID deserve judgment, just as I do every single time I take an action which seeks my own kingdom rather than His.  The Ninevites were great sinners and yet, of those great sinners, didn’t the Lord Himself say, “Should I not pity Nineveh, that great city, in which there are more than 120,000 persons who do not know their right hand from their left, and also much cattle?”

“Should I not pity Nineveh?” is an essentially missional question.  It does not downplay the extreme seriousness of any sins which rob God of His glory.  But it does affirm that what Jonah should have desired most of all was not that judgment be visited upon the Ninevites but that the Ninevites should repent and believe and appropriately worship and honor God and, as a result, receive the blessing which is intimated at the end of Jonah 3 and which Jonah expressly repudiates in the first four verses of Chapter 4.

Yes, of course, maintain black and white where God gives clear indication in Scripture that they exist.  But nuance our response to all of those who sin toward the goal that they repent and be saved.  And nuance is essentially a “gray” word.  It is also and consequently and “missional” word.

It is a word that describes our journey as we “follow Jesus into the world.”  Do you agree?

Sam Logan is Special Counsel to the President and Professor of Church History at Biblical. He is an ordained minister of the Orthodox Presbyterian Church. He is married to Susan and they have two sons and two grandsons. See also http://www.biblical.edu/index.php/samuel-logan 


Written by Sam Logan Tuesday, 27 March 2012 00:00

Sometimes, I find myself wishing that the Lord had made more use of the colors black and white in His creation and had utilized fewer of the many shades of gray that seem to be present in our world.

The March 19, 2012, issue of Time Magazine stirred those wishes yet again.

In an article entitled , “What Counts as Crazy?” (pp. 42 – 45), Time health writer John Cloud explores the controversy raging through the American psychiatric community over the upcoming (in 2013) publication of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM, for short).  Apparently, this is the volume which, more or less “officially,” defines what is regarded as “normal” and what is regarded as “abnormal” behavior.  Among the many ways in which these definitions matter, according to Cloud, it is only for treatment of “abnormal” conditions that psychiatrists are able to bill health insurance companies.

So far, so interesting.

But as I read the article, questions far more significant than mental health insurance coverage popped into my mind.

Here is an example -  one of the primary changes made between the second edition of the DSM and the third edition of the DSM (the third edition was published in 1980), was that, in the third edition, homosexuality was no longer regarded as a “disorder” (it had been so regarded in the first and second editions of the DSM).  And, according to the Time article, this determination was made on the basis of a vote commissioned by the American Psychiatric Association in which “being gay was deemed sane by a vote of 5,854 to 3,810.”  Even Cloud interprets this fact to mean that “Over the years, the gray areas  have allowed many forces beyond science to shape the DSM” (emphasis added).

So far, REALLY interesting but it gets even better (not the article but my own {“normal?”; “abnormal?”} interpretation of the implications of the article).

Is a crazy person (don’t blame me; that’s the term used in the Time article) guilty of sin if, while insane, he does things which Scripture forbids?

If, for instance, a person diagnosed with Tourette’s Syndrome uses the Lord’s name in vain, should he come under church discipline?  Why or why not?

Should an individual diagnosed with severe depression be regarded as guilty of a lack of faith?  Don’t laugh – shortly after a very dear and deeply Christian individual I knew was prescribed Triavil (one of the older tricyclic antidepressants), the President of the Christian college where I was teaching at the time spoke to the college faculty and assured us that “anyone taking an antidepressant should stop that and just learn to trust the Lord.”

Most of us might  quickly dismiss the comments of that college President as ridiculous . . . I know I did when I heard those comments.  But the shades of gray get more and more pervasive.

According to the Time article mentioned above, three of the “new disorders” which are likely to listed in the fifth edition of the DSM are binge eating, internet addiction, and sex addiction.  Are these behaviors normal or are they abnormal?  Is binge eating a disorder?  Really?  If I say that it is not, that it is simply the “gluttony” which Scripture prohibits, am I doing the same thing which the college President did?  But if binge eating IS “abnormal,” is the person who engages in that activity guilty of anything (other than an unhealthy lifestyle)?

Well, binge eating is one thing.   What about “sex addiction?”  Now, the issue gets really troubling!

But there is more trouble (make that more “gray”) of which we need to take account.

When you read above that the voters in the APA poll determined that being gay is not abnormal,  what was your reaction?  I will bet you a dish of haggis that you reacted negatively.   OF COURSE, being gay is abnormal!  Be careful!!  If a behavior is abnormal, does that make it a sickness?  And if it is a sickness, is the person acting out of that sickness any more guilty than the Tourette’s child who screams out obscenities?

In some ways, modern medicine, including modern psychiatric medicine, has made amazing progress for which we all should be grateful.  But should we be grateful that, whereas, in 1917, there were only 22 available officially recognized psychiatric  diagnoses, there are now 350 available?  This is financially helpful to many of us who have health insurance.  But what does it do to the shades of gray as we seek to make – and to help others make – critical moral distinctions and decisions?

And, of course, “normal” does not necessarily equal “moral” any more than “abnormal” necessarily means “immoral.”  A certain behavior may “normal” but still “sinful,” right? 

So where – and how – do we draw the lines of “moral responsibility” when discussing behaviors which may or may not be caused by internal conditions over which we may or may not have complete control?

What do you think?

And I’ll suggest tomorrow what I believe Jonathan Edwards would think about all of this.

Sam Logan is Special Counsel to the President and Professor of Church History at Biblical. He is an ordained minister of the Orthodox Presbyterian Church. He is married to Susan and they have two sons and two grandsons. See also http://www.biblical.edu/index.php/samuel-logan


Written by Dr. Phil Monroe Monday, 26 March 2012 00:00

Last month I wrote this post about abuse in the church. If you want more training on this topic, check out this link for our upcoming abuse in the church course.

There once were two churches who found out that a leader had engaged in pastoral sexual abuse. Each church convened a committee to handle the painful process of deciding what to do. The committees needed to act quickly as it was Thursday and the leader was scheduled to preach on Sunday. What would they do? What would they say to the congregation?  The situations in each church were quite sticky since the victim of abuse was well-known to be manipulative and demanding (and not liked) while the leader was respected and considered a gifted, visionary leader.

Committee A began to take up the matter of whether or not they could ever foresee the leader returning to a ministry position. They also considered what they might say to the congregation so as to tamp down anxiety and gossip. Should they send him away to a treatment center? Should they ask the victim to attend another church? A few on the committee were concerned about legal liability exposure. One member wondered whether the leader’s heartfelt written apology should be made public on Sunday. Another wondered whether they could send the leader away on “retreat” for 2 weeks due to the upcoming groundbreaking ceremony on the new church wing. In the end, the committee decided to have one of the elders read a short letter stating that the leader is in need of some personal care over a matter of sexual integrity and has willingly sought help. Part of the letter included the leader’s confession. The congregation should pray for the leader and family but should not engage in gossip or conversation about the matter.

Committee B faced all of the same pressures…and raised many of the same concerns. Yet, one of the members of this committee suggested that they take a few minutes to explore the values they want undergirding all decisions. As they deliberated, a few key values rose to the top: protection of all, love and truth, and pastoral ministry. They determined that legal liability, determination of fault, reputation in the community, and desired outcomes should all be secondary values in comparison to protecting and ministering to victim, offender and congregation as well as speaking the truth in love. The rest of their meeting focused on developing ministry strategies for each party, their families, and the congregation. On Sunday, this committee informed the church of pastoral sexual abuse admitted to by the leader, chose not to report the pastor’s confession (unsure of its actual depth), acknowledged the many confusing and painful questions, and gave pastoral directions on how to handle this period (e.g., why leader abuse is such a serious matter, how to pray, who to talk to, how to use this as an opportunity for self-reflection). In addition, this committee informed the congregation as to the goal of restoration of broken things while being clear that the leader might not return to the church in a leader capacity. 

Abuse always rocks our world and upsets community life. If we fail to identify what core values we want to cling to in a time of crisis, we’re likely to fall prey to reactionary decisions based on self and system protection rather than on truth, love and ministry.

Phil Monroe is Professor of Counseling & Psychology and Director of the Masters of Arts in Counseling Program at Biblical. He maintains a private practice at Diane Langberg & Associates. He blogs regularly at www.wisecounsel.wordpress.com. See also http://www.biblical.edu/index.php/phillip-monroe.


Written by Dr. Phil Monroe Monday, 26 March 2012 00:00

Several years ago I heard a sermon preached on Hebrews 11:8-22 and Abraham's journey to the promised land. During the sermon I thought of this application to my own Seminary's quest to teach and train missional church leaders and counselors for the 21st century. A little background: not everyone has been happy with our move to reach the emerging leadership of the church—or at least with our tactics. The emerging church has been willing to criticize sharply the prior evangelical style of church. In their effort to try new things, some have tried on theological positions that run counter or at least perpendicular to conservative Christian doctrine. Because we at the Seminary haven't led with our criticisms of emerging church, some have criticized and attacked us. One criticism leveled is that the emerging church and Biblical Seminary don't know where they are going. We're on a journey that can only lead to heresy and rejection of the Gospel--or so it is thought by some.

Enter Hebrews 11.

Notice that Abraham travels with much uncertainty. He surely knew that God called him and so he left family and homeland at an elderly age. I wonder if he grew tired of saying, "Here, Lord? This looks like a good spot. No, you want me to keep going???.” My guess is that he probably second-guessed his calling a time or two along the way. However, the writer of Hebrews does tell us that Abraham did look expectantly to one thing: heaven (v. 11). Notice that the promise of heirs as numerous as of sand and land was never fully realized in his lifetime. As the preacher reminded us, he even had to buy some land to bury his cherished wife. At age 100, he had yet to receive the promise of Isaac. Then a few years later he is asked by God to sacrifice Isaac.

We who have the entire canon seem to forget that we too do not know where God is taking us. We have a clearer picture of heaven and clear calls to seek and serve God's kingdom. And yet we do not know exactly to what God is calling us. We, like Abraham, may try to bring about God's promises (these usually lead to bad consequence). God is faithful none-the-less.

So, in answer to those who ask whether Biblical Seminary knows where it is going, I say, No, not fully.” We do know that God is faithful, the land is foreign, we own nothing, but we trust in his goodness both now and in eternity. We seek to live faithfully in worshipful service to God and in loving our neighbors as ourselves. It would be more comforting to think we had it all figured out. It is tempting to do so since that would make our vision planning much easier. Certitude might attract more students and donors. But, we believe a more faithful response is to ask the Lord to send us into the harvest and use as He wills.

One last point. Our lack of knowing just where we are going is NOT to say we have NO idea, nor to say all viewpoints are valid and everyone's expression of faith is good. Those interested in knowing more what we do seek and believe are welcome to check out our President's Missional Journal.

Phil Monroe is professor of counseling & psychology and directs the Masters of Arts in Counseling program. He maintains a private practice at Diane Langberg & Associates. You can follow his counseling blog here or read his faculty bio here.



Written by Dr. Todd Mangum Wednesday, 21 March 2012 00:00

The morning after Linda and I spent the night with the homeless, our responsibility was to ensure that both families got off by 7:00 AM. That meant we carried car seats out – and I actually ended up carrying one pre-schooler out who was still sound asleep – at about 6:30 AM. It was cold that morning, too, so car windows had to be defrosted and scraped on top of everything else involved in the morning routine.

That all got Linda and me talking when we got home later that morning. We both remembered how difficult those days of diapers and diaper bags, car seats and crying kids were for us. That was years ago for us now, yet we still remember those days as “hard” – but we were a “stable, two-parent home,” we lived in our own house, and, though finances always feel tight, we’ve never been in danger of being evicted. We talked about all this over flavored coffee we’d brewed in our own coffee-maker in our kitchen, with our white picket fence literally forming the background to our conversation out our back window.

Jesus talks about the Kingdom being like a treasure or rare piece of jewelry that, once someone finds it, they’ll give up everything to get. But what if you’d inherited that rare piece of jewelry, and wore it every day.  After a while, wouldn’t you just sort of take it for granted, and forget about just how valuable it is?    

Linda and I were both raised in strong Christian homes. Likewise, our three boys grew up in a home where love and commitment to one another, and to God, has just never been in question.

I don’t want to paint an overly idyllic picture here. I like to tease friends and family way too much. Linda and I have had more than one spat over who gets the remote. And, I remember one whiffle ball game ending with one of the boys throwing the bat at his brother.  But that’s about the height of the conflict we’ve experienced in our home.

It would be, literally, unimaginable for our family to contemplate, much less face, the kind of instability, challenge and lack of resources experienced by the single-parent homeless families we spent that one night with.

In reflecting on that, part of what I realize is: the benefits and blessings that God often gives to His people are rich and deep, but can be kind of subtle, too – like the family heirloom a woman wears everyday of her life since high school but that turns out to be worth thousands of dollars, which no one suspected until the estate sale revealed its real worth after she died or something.

Linda and I are now in, well, late middle age. We have three boys, the youngest of which will soon be driving – the other two have grown and left the house already. But all three, and our daughter-in-law, too, clearly love us and love the Lord. Not only do we love one another, we enjoy one another.  And, for Linda and me, “happily married” is not just a cliché.

And, we realize, when we think about it – which we too often don’t – that this is precious and rare. And that so, so many people would give all that they have to enjoy what we simply take for granted. And that what is truly valuable is too often traded for something shinier, maybe, but counterfeit.

Todd Mangum is the Academic Dean and Professor of Theology at Biblical.  He is ordained by the Southern Baptist Convention.  Todd is the author of The Dispensational-Covenantal Rift, and of several articles seeking to bridge divides among Bible-believing Christians. He is married to Linda and they have three sons.  See also http://www.biblical.edu/index.php/todd-mangum.


Written by Dr. Todd Mangum Tuesday, 20 March 2012 00:00

Last week (by the time you read this, it will be “last month”), my wife, Linda, and I spent a night with the homeless. It was part of a ministry our church offers in cooperation with other churches – kind of a “divide and conquer” kind of strategy. Each church hosts some otherwise-homeless families for a month; people in the church provide the evening meal; and provide someone to come over later in the night to offer welcome, simple human warmth, conversation, help of  any miscellaneous variety -- and give some added security by staying the night in another room in the building. That’s what Linda and I did. 

It cost us a night. Truth is, we talked about not doing it – it’s never “convenient” and we keep up busy lives without this. But, in the end, we couldn’t come up with any reasons for not doing it as good as the reasons we knew for doing it, from what God says so clearly in His Word about how important it is to Him to take care of the poor, the vulnerable, the indigent.

You never know what you’ll actually do when you get there – other than the less-than-satisfying night’s sleep, which is the one “given.” Besides that, you could be confronted with nothing or a lot. Last year, my wife ended up serving as “moderator” between two mothers who got to fighting over how one of their kids was being treated by the other one’s kids. Except for that drama, though, the rest of the night was spent having casual conversation with the adults, while the kids (mostly teenagers) watched TV.

This year, the oldest child of the three there (between two families staying the month) was six – so two pre-schoolers and a first-grader. I’d actually brought a book along to read, in case the evening turned out to be a quiet one not involving us much. I never got to the book. The moment we walked in, the kids’ faces lit up as they came running to us – “Can we play?!”  “Sure!,” we said, “what do you want to play?”  “How about ‘tag’?!”  Me: “Um – you mean, like, . . . running?”  . . .

So that night we played “tag,” and “sharks and minnows,” and soccer, and hide ‘n’ seek, and ended the playtime with “chicken races” – where I had a four-year-old boy on my back, and Linda a six-year-old girl on hers.  We boys won.   

Turned out our night’s sleep wasn’t so bad after all. . . .

Now, from September through February, I’ve taught four Master’s level courses – in postmodern apologetics, in soteriology, in trinitarianism, in pneumatology; all important stuff, exploring with students headed to ministry some of the deep things of God, the missional character of God and how that character forms the goals of the Kingdom, and informs and impels our ground-level attitudes and practices, and forms communities of faith the serve His will, to endeavor to please Him, and, by His grace, to forward His Kingdom goals and missional objectives in the world.  All important stuff.

But here’s a question that’s sort of haunted me over the last month. That night with the homeless cost us a night. And, Linda and I almost didn’t do it – not because we’re apathetic or lazy, but because our lives are already heavily invested in important things. But I have to wonder: in God’s calculus of what is important, I wonder if that one night with the homeless wasn’t worth more than many days and nights of contemplation, reading, and talking about His will?

I once heard someone say that, if a good lumberjack is given five minutes to chop down a tree, a wise one will spend the first four minutes of the five sharpening his ax. Wisdom in that, for sure.  But, of course, if getting the tree chopped down is the goal, there better be at least a minute of actual chopping, right?    

Todd Mangum is the Academic Dean and Professor of Theology at Biblical.  He is ordained by the Southern Baptist Convention.  Todd is the author of The Dispensational-Covenantal Rift, and of several articles seeking to bridge divides among Bible-believing Christians. He is married to Linda and they have three sons.  See also http://www.biblical.edu/index.php/todd-mangum


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